Yin and Yang in Technology (±x)
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This is a short article about how certain types of software projects (cryptographic) come under the auspices of Aerospace & Defence… [I am still writing it]
As Mark Graff states in the above video, “cyberweapons.. are easy to make, easy to move, and hard to find.. so trying to limit their spread by export controls is never going to work.”
And he is COMPLETELY CORRECT!
The Wassenaar Arrangement (“WA”)
The Wassenaar Arrangement, was the first global multilateral arrangement on export controls for conventional weapons and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies. It received final approval by 33 co-founding countries in July 1996 and began operations in September 1996.
The WA was designed to promote transparency, exchange of views and information and greater responsibility in transers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, maintain fully effective export controls and adhere to relevant non-proliferation treaties and regimes.
My American colleagues had advised me of the concepts in late 1993, since the framework directly impacted upon Integrated Systems Research Ltd (“ISR”) and the cryptographic work we were undertaking was clearly Dual-Use.
Furthermore, they also advised me in late 1994 that any new entities needed to be incorporated so that they were in existence a year before the final version was approved. Accordingly Rhodium PLC was incorporated on 12 June 1995 and just over a year later on 12 July 1996 the ‘Initial Elements’ of WA were defined.
The WA is also the reason that we use have used rhodium.com (since 09 September 1995) instead of rhodium.co.uk , despite the latter being the more appropriate domain for a UK company in 1995.
Dual-use items have a primary commercial/civil application but have also have the potential for military or weapons applications. The U.S. Department of Commerce has listed the dual-use items, software, and technology it controls on the Commerce Control List found in 15 CFR 774.
This list is divided into ten broad categories, as follows:
1- Materials, Chemicals, Microorganisms and Toxins
2- Materials processing
5- Telecommunications and Information Security
6- Lasers and Sensors
7- Navigation and Avionics
9- Propulsion Systems, Space Vehicles and Related Equipment
I am still in the process of writing this article, but I hope the foregoing makes sense 🙂
Joseph S R de Saram CISSP FBCS MIEEE MIScT MINCOSE MACS Snr CP